Alternative Vote

With the Alternative Vote (AV) your constituency gets an MP the majority support.

What is the Alternative Vote?

The Alternative Vote is not a form of proportional representation.

In certain conditions, such as the 2015 General Election, it would have produced a less proportional result than Westminster’s First Past the Post system. The British public voted not to replace Westminster’s voting system with the Alternative Vote in 2011.

In the United States, the Alternative Vote is often called Instant Runoff Voting (IRV). The state of Maine voted to use AV in its elections in 2016.

It is also used in Australia to elect its House of Representatives and in Australia’s states to elect at least one House of their state parliaments. It is also used to elect the President of Ireland.

How to vote

The voter puts a number by each candidate, with a one for their favourite, 2 for their second favourite and so on. They can put numbers on as many or as few as they wish.

How it is counted

If more than half the voters have the same favourite candidate, that person becomes the MP. If nobody gets half, the numbers provide instructions for what happens next.

The counters remove whoever came last and look at the ballot papers with that candidate as their favourite. Rather than throwing away these votes, they move each one to the voter’s second favourite candidate. This process repeated until one candidate has half of the votes and becomes the MP.


Voters can vote for their favourite candidate without worrying about wasting their vote. This means there is less need for tactical voting than in Westminster’s voting system.

Unlike hosting a run-off vote to decide the winner the Alternative Vote uses a single ballot and avoids the need for tactical voting to stop a disliked candidate getting into the final round. Candidates are also incentivised to run less divisive campaigns, as candidates will want to become their opponent’s voters second favourite candidate.


"MPs become more representative of their constituencies but Parliament can become less representative of the country"

Electoral Reform Society

As extremist candidates on the political fringes are likely to be the first to be excluded, the Alternative Vote tends to work against candidates who are polarising and help those who are broadly liked.

"AV is the best way to elect a single person, like a president or mayor, but it's a flawed way to elect a parliament as it isn't proportional"

Electoral Reform Society

Example Election