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The UK has one of the most centralised local government funding systems

How are English local councils funded?

While you might think that local councils are wholly funded...

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41 percent of England’s population now live in areas with some form of mayoral devolution deal

What is a combined authority and what is...

Local government in England comes in many different formats, unitary,...

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A product of a history of ad hoc piecemeal top-down reforms

How is local government organised in England?

England’s local government can sometimes be quite confusing. The history...

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Duverger’s Law is one of the oldest so-called ‘laws’ in political science

Duvager’s law – more guidelines than actual rules?

Wherever there are two dominant political parties, there is a...

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More people will bother voting if they feel that their vote won't be wasted

Does proportional representation lead to higher turnout?

A healthy democracy requires healthy levels of democratic participation –...

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other countries have powerful regional representatives, Britain remains the odd-one-out

How are the members of upper houses chosen...

Many countries use a bicameral political system – meaning that...

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There are many ways party leaders and prime ministers are chosen across Europe

How are Prime Ministers chosen around the world?

With pressure mounting on Boris Johnson, it’s looking increasingly possible...

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2022 is a big year for presidential elections in Europe

How are Presidents elected around Europe?

2022 is a big year for presidential elections in Europe...

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A tram in portugal

As Portugal heads to the polls – how...

Portugal is holding a snap election at the end of...

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With First Past the Post extreme candidates simply join mainstream parties

Does First Past the Post stop extremists getting...

If you listen to supporters of first past the post,...

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The smaller the constituency, the less proportional the results

What is the ideal number of MPs per...

When choosing a proportional voting system, one of the most...

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Within Europe semi-open lists are the norm

What’s the difference between open and closed list...

When discussing proportional voting systems, or voting systems in general,...

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