Single Transferable Vote

With the Single Transferable Vote, the strength of the parties matches the strength of their support in the country, and representatives - for example, Members of Parliament - have a strong local link.

Single Transferable Vote STV

What is a Single Transferable Vote system?

The Single Transferable Vote (STV) is a form of proportional representation created in Britain. Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, Malta, Scotland and Australia use this system for some or all of their elections. In America, it is often referred to as ‘ranked choice voting in multi-member seats’, in Australia they call it ‘Hare-Clark’.

How does the single transferable vote system work?

Rather than one person representing everyone in a small area, bigger areas elect a small team of representatives. These representatives reflect the diversity of opinions in the area.

On election day, voters number a list of candidates. Their favourite as number one, their second favourite number two, and so on. Voters can put numbers next to as many or as few candidates as they like. Parties will often stand more than one candidate in each area.

The numbers tell the people counting to move your vote if your favourite candidate has enough votes already or stands no chance of winning.

Voters don't have to worry about 'vote splitting' or tactical voting with STV – they just put the candidates in order Click To Tweet

How it’s counted

To get elected, a candidate needs a set amount of votes, known as the quota. The people counting the votes work out the quota based on the number of vacancies and the number of votes cast.

Each voter has one vote. Once the counting has finished, any candidate who has more number ones than the quota is elected. But, rather than ignore extra votes a candidate received after the amount they need to win, these votes move to each voter’s second favourite candidate.

If no one reaches the quota, then the people counting the vote remove the least popular candidate. People who voted for them have their votes moved to their second favourite candidate. This process continues until every vacancy is filled.

Effects and Features

The Single Transferable Vote is an electoral system that puts the power in the hands of the public. Evidence from Scotland and Ireland suggests voters use it in quite sophisticated ways.

Voters can also choose between candidates from the same party or different parties. This means voters can elect all MPs based on their individual abilities.

With the Single Transferable Vote, voters can also choose candidates from the same party, different parties or independents. All MPs are elected on their individual merit. Click To Tweet

Voters can also vote for independent candidates without worrying about wasting their vote. Ireland has many independent MPs as do some Scottish councils.

Constituencies are more natural, covering a whole town or a county. This creates a recognisable local link, and gives voters a choice of representatives to talk to.

Just like having a group of GPs at your local surgery, under STV you have a group of representatives and you can talk to the MP who cares about your problem Click To Tweet

How to conduct an election by the Single Transferable Vote

Examples

Example Election - 3 Seat Video

To calculate the quota: There were 109,525 valid votes cast and three seats to be filled. So, 109,525 divided by four (because we have three seats, plus one), then plus one = 27,382

  1. John has easily reached the quota so is elected. His surplus votes are transferred based on the instructions on the ballots
  2. Many of John’s supporters also liked Aliyah. She gets enough of the transferred votes to be elected.
  3. Aliyah’s surplus votes are transferred but nobody has enough to be elected.
  4. Helen has been eliminated and the votes she won are transferred.
  5. Paul is also eliminated
  6. It’s now impossible for Sally to win, so Kwame wins the last seat.

Example Election - 5 Seat Diagram

There are five seats available but 9 candidates are standing. To get elected a candidate needs 108 votes. Evans has enough on the first count so is elected. Nobody hits 108, so Pearson, with the smallest amount of votes, goes out. Nobody hits 108, so Lennon, with the smallest amount of votes, goes out. At first sight, the next thing to do might appear to be to transfer the Stewart’s surplus. But his surplus of 7 is smaller than the difference between the two candidates with the fewest votes, Wilcox (60) and Cohen (71) and thus
cannot affect the order between them. So instead, the Returning Officer now excludes the lowest candidate, Wilcox. Augustine and Harley now both have over 108 so are elected. There aren’t enough surplus votes, even if they all went to Cohen for him to be elected, so Vine is declared the final winner.

Multi-Member Constituency Example

London with 3 and 4 seat STV constituencies
The white lines are the borders of London’s current constituencies, the different colours are potential multi-member constituencies.

Rather than having 3 single member constituencies next to each other, you have one multi-member constituency that elects 3 MPs. To better fit the natural, administrative and locally recognised boundaries, some of the new multi-member constituencies elect 3 and some 4 MPS. Constituencies designed by Lewis Baston.